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Piment d’Espelette: The Black Beret of French Spices

by | Mar 15, 2021 | Uncategorized

Do you know that black beret you think is so¬†¬†Parisian? It’s actually from the Basque region of southwestern France. Just like the French chili pepper spice called “Piment d’Espelette.”¬†

I’ve always associated different chili peppers or “piments” with Latin American cuisine. But the French Basques adopted centuries ago this imported spice to make it their own.

Saffron is another spice produced in France, along with Tahitian vanilla (Tahiti is a French Overseas Territory). However, Piment d’Espelette is the only one in France that has obtained its own “AOC.” (protected designation of origin).  

Other spices are used in French cooking, like cumin, but they’re not produced locally.

The History of French Piment d’Espelette:

The Piment d’Espelette chili pepper was brought back from the Antilles in the 16th century by the navigator and explorer Juan Sebastian Alcano. The spice was first planted in the Spanish region of Castile.

It was introduced into the Basque region of France later in the 16th century, mainly around the village of Espelette, south of the city of Bayonne. 

The Piment d’Espelette adapted well to the local climate. It was first used for therapeutic treatments, then for cooking from the 17th century onwards.

Basques used it in place of black pepper, which was a rare and expensive commodity at the time. 

Piment d’Espelette was also applied as a dye and to conserve meat, like the typical Bayonne ham. It was used as a spice in chocolate since the city of Bayonne was also the largest producer of chocolate at the time.

Why is it called “Piment d’Espelette?”:

Espelette was the Basque town where people usually went to buy the spice, so in the 19th century, the name was associated with it. 

Today, however, the official producers of this chili pepper also grow it in 10 different communes of the Basque region. 

Its botanical name is from the chili pepper species “Capsicum Annum.”

The Basque varietal that has been developed over the years through selective cultivation is called ‘Gorria.’ So its full botanical name is Capsicum Annum ‘Gorria.’

How to recognise authentic Piment d’Espelette:AOC or Protected Designation of Origin Criteria:

Piment d’Espelette is the only French spice granted an AOC (“Appellation d’Origine Contr√īl√©e”) or PDO (“Protected Designation of Origin”) seal.

This label requires the spice to be produced in particular communes and in a specific way to be considered authentic.   

Authentic Piment d’Espelette will always carry a label mentioning the AOC designation.

AOC or Protected Designation of Origin Criteria:

Cultivation of authentic Piment d’Espelette follows these three AOC criteria:

  1. the chili peppers must be harvested by hand when they are a ripe red color
  2. they cannot be harvested before August, only from August onward
  3. the whole chili peppers must be dried naturally for at least 15 days, if not more (usually around 21 days)

Piment d’Espelette is sold in several forms with the AOC appellation:

  • as the whole pepper in full red color
  • corded in braids with 10-20 chili peppers of equal size per cord
  • as a fine powder¬†¬†(which can go from orange in color to a brownish red).¬†The powder is obtained from mature chili peppers that have been oven-dried then grounded.¬†

How do the French Use the Piment d’Espelette Spice in Cooking?

This spice is an essential part of French Basque cooking. It has a warm, typical aroma that is slightly smokey and citrusy without being overpowering. 

Piment d’Espelette is used in many ways because it’s not too strong: It has a grade of 4 on the “Scoville” scale. By comparison, sweet paprika has a score of 2.

How the French Basques use Piment d’Espelette:

  • to flavoring sauces like mayonnaise or mustard¬†
  • mixed into butter and spread on toast¬†
  • sprinkled over grilled meats or eggs¬†
  • used in marinades
  • incorporated into meat and bean dishes like chile con carne
  • mixed into crusts for mushroom pies¬†¬†
  • mixed into desserts such as vanilla ice cream or chocolate mousse¬†

The French also infuse Piment d’Espelette in: 

  • vinegar for vinaigrettes
  • olive oil
  • honey
  • tea
  • jellies
  • chocolate

A French Recipe With Piment d’Espelette:

Roasted Butternut Squash & Potatoes with Piment d’Espelette

For 4:


  • 2¬†¬†Butternut Squash
  • 6 Potatoes
  • Sea salt or Kosher salt
  • 1 tsp of Piment d’Espelette (in powder form)
  • 8¬†¬†Tb of olive oil
  • 2 tsp (leveled) of garlic powder


  • Pre-heat the oven to 200¬įC/390¬įF
  • Slice the butternut in one inch thick round slices, remove the peel and chop in 1 inch thick cubes.¬†
  • Peel the potatoes and chop into one inch thick cubes, of similar size as the butternut.¬†
  • Place the butternut & potato cubes in an oven-safe dish and drizzle with olive oil, sprinkle with the Piment d’Espelette, garlic powder, and salt.¬†
  • Leave to bake in the oven for 45 minutes, stirring from time to time, then put the oven on “Grill” for 15 minutes until the potatoes are slightly browned. The potatoes will melt due to the water rendered by the squash.¬†
  • Once removed from the oven you can sprinkle with thyme if you like and serve with chicken or veal.¬†

Where To Buy French Piment d’Espelette on has several suppliers of authentic French Piment d’Espelette that have the AOC seal:

1. BiperdunaRed Chili Pepper Powder from France by Biperduna on

2. Matiz Organic Piment d’Espelette Pepper from Basque France on

3. GourmanityPiment d’Espelette French Red Chili Pepper Non GMO on


A French secret for eating healthy meals is to use good quality authentic spices to add variety to home cooking. 

Piment d’Espelette is an excellent spice to add to your pantry because it can be used in so many ways: from savory to sweet dishes.

It adds a delicious warm smokey, citrusy flavor to food but isn’t overpowering like other spices. Its unique aroma doesn’t drown out the flavors of other ingredients. 

So if you’re bored with your same old recipes on repeat or tempted by take-out, then this workhorse will be an excellent addition to your pantry. It’s a very versatile seasoning and you’ll get a lot of use out of it.

And now you: Have you ever tried Piment d’Espelette?

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